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The pulmonology — is the section of internal medicine which is engaged in studying, diagnostics, prevention and treatment of lung diseases affecting airways, air sacs, interstitial, blood vessels, pleurae and the chest wall.
Smoking, infections, and genetics are responsible for most lung diseases. Most often lung diseases are bronchial asthma chronic bronchitis, chronic pneumonia, and tuberculosis, emphysema of lungs, lung cancer, and cystic fibrosis.
The German clinics offer a full range of services for treatment of lungs and diseases of respiratory organs.
Within diagnostics following advanced techniques are offered:
- Chest x-rays: Computed tomography (CT), CT angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Nuclear lung scanning
- Positron emission tomography (PET)
- Exercise stress testing (six-minute walk test:, cardiopulmonary exercise testing)
- Pulmonary function testing (PFT)
- Spirometry and diffusion capacity
- pharmacological provocative tests (for example, inhalation of a histamine),
- blood test (definition of degree of blood oxygen)
Cancer therapy of lungs
In Germany some types of a cancer therapy of lungs are applied: surgical intervention, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
The method of treatment depends on number of factors and is chosen in each case individually.
The method of treatment is influenced by following factors:
- stage of the tumour, histologic structure of a tumour (small cell lung cancer and non-small cell carcinoma of lungs), but also associated diseases of the patient;
Operational cancer therapy of lungs in Germany
The following types of surgical interventions are applied:
- removal of all lung or its amputation
- removal of the lung site affected by tumour
Surgical cancer therapy of a lung can be applied to the large cell carcinoma. In case of spreading to the mediastinal lymph glands, they are also removed during operation. Large cell carcinoma can be treated also with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or in combination of these depending on the stage when the cancer is diagnosed.
Small cell carcinoma can be treated with chemotherapy. You may also have radiotherapy to treat this type of lung cancer.
Radiotherapy of lung cancer
Radiation can be carried out as before surgery, to shrink the tumour as after the surgery for destruction of remained cancer cells. Radiotherapy can be also combined with chemotherapy. An advanced technique introduced recently is a Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure where electricity is transmitted through a needle to destroy cancer cells. (350–500 kHz) The RFA procedure is usually conducted in the outpatient setting, using local or conscious sedation anaesthesia. The RFA is not offered to all patients, the decision on use of this method is made by the doctor.
Chemotherapy of lungs
Chemotherapy is applied in addition to the palliative care.